Journal of Management & Science

Volume 7 No. 2 December 2009 - contents

Research articles:

 

1

Thinking Critically About Evolution
Ridhwan Fontaine & Mohd Shukri Ab Yajid

 

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Abstract
The purpose of this study is to provide students and researchers with a case study that promotes critical thinking. The study first reviews the uncertainty associated with inductive reasoning. Then, the method of science is reviewed. In particular, the author introduces the following ideas: partial theories, divergent thinking and paradigms. The pros and cons associated with the theory of evolution is then presented succinctly. The general observation seems that most researchers - whatever side they take - draw conclusions that are logically incorrect.


12

Laboratory Control Management System
Md Gapar b. Md Johar, Yap Woon Ye & Sim Liew Fong

 

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Abstract
Lack of management tools in computer laboratories are the major factors which lead to a defective control of the system. Prior to that, lecturers do not have control over the computers in the laboratory. Laboratory Control Management System is an object-oriented application which can be used to manage the computers in the computer laboratory. Laboratory Control Management System can be used across platform, but some of the options cannot work under Linux platform. All the functions in Laboratory Control Management System are executed sequentially. Therefore lecturers have to wait for the current process to be completed before proceeding with another process. Other than that, Laboratory Control Management System allows lecturers to monitor the activities of students. The implementation of Laboratory Control Management System will further increase an effective management in the computer laboratory.


27

Development of an Alternative Light Weight Material
Nordin Othmana, Awang Bonob & Reena Rahmanb

 

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Abstract
In this study, rice husk-rice straw and fiber glass composites has been produced. The raw material, rice straw and rice husk were chosen because of their availability. The manufacturing parameters were the quantity of layer of the woven rice straws. Formula Optimization of Melamine-Urea-Formaldehyde (MUF) was used as the composite binder. Chopped strain fiberglass was used to laminate the fiberboard to strengthen the composite while contains the raw material in shape. Mechanical properties of composite such as Modulus of Rupture, Modulus of Elasticity and Internal Bonding strength had been investigated. The results show that this composite work well in wet environment and may be suitable for structural application such as boat. However, more research should be conducted to produce better quality of composite by using rice husk-straw and fiberglass.


36

Performance Analysis of Optical WDM Networks in the Presence of SRS for Various Fiber Types and Walk-off Lengths
Yasin M. Karfaaa, M. Ismaila, Abbou F. Ma, S. Shaarib, and Majumder S. Pc

 

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Abstract
An enhanced theoretical model is introduced and employed to investigate the prominent features and analyze the key parameters of evaluation like the bit error rate (BER) to estimate performance limitation of a optical WDM transmission system imposed by stimulated Raman scattering as one of the fiber nonlinear effects property after increasing the launched power with the conditional reasons, and various fiber types are used together with varying walk-off lengths. Power penalty evaluated at a BER of 10-9 shows a significant impact of crosstalk on the number of wavelengths that can be connected to the network. Penalty is higher at higher input power, higher number of channels and higher bit rates used for transmission. Penalty differs for various types, and for various walk-off lengths.


43

The Antimicrobial Property of Aloe Vera against Gram Positive and Gram Negative Bacteria
Kamesh P., Suhana MS., Halijah H., Norshafarina S., & Azrina Z.A

 

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Abstract
Many plants are long known for their antimicrobial property. Different studies provided evidence that some medicinal plants are potential sources of new antibacterial agents against antibiotic-resistant strains. Aloe vera contains a large number of active components that have recognized antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties. The active component of Curcuma longa or known as turmeric exhibits a variety of pharmacological effects including antioxidant, adaptogenic, anti-inflammatory and anti-infectious activities. The objective of this research was to investigate the antimicrobial property of Aloe vera and Curcuma longa. The Aloe vera plant was collected locally, blended and extracted using 100% ethanol. It is then filtered and evaporated using rotary evaporator where crude was obtained. As for Curcuma longa, powdered form was purchased, extracted with 95% ethanol, filtered and evaporated. The antimicrobial susceptibility test was conducted using Kirby-Bauer method where blank discs were immersed in crude extracts and placed on the Muller-Hinton agar plates with bacteria. Six types of strains that were used are Proteus vulgaris, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus sp., Shigella flexneri, Stapylococcus aureus and Bacillus sp. Tetracycline 10μg was used as the positive control whereas DMSO and ethanol were used as negative controls. The plates were incubated for 24 hours. Inhibition zone was measured using ruler in milimeter. Data analysis was conducted using one-way ANOVA test. Aloe vera showed significance result (p 0.05) compared to tetracycline for all the strains at 3000mg/ml concentration. Curcuma longa showed significance result (p 0.05) compared to tetracycline for all the strains at 3000mg/ml concentration except for E. coli, S. flexneri and S. aureus. However, Curcuma longa was more effective at lower concentration (375mg/ml) compared to Aloe vera which has better inhibitory effect at higher concentration (1g/ml). Curcuma longa was more effective compared to Aloe vera in inhibiting the bacteria due to its ability to produce more zone of inhibition on different types of bacteria compared to Aloe vera in low concentration. In conclusion, study had shown that there could be a great potential when plants can be used as complementary or alternative treatment to combat bacterial infection.


63

Double-Randomized Study on the Efficacy of Conventional Antibacterial Hand Wash vs. Instant Rinse-free Hand Sanitizer
Penny S., Haniza H. & Suhana MS

 

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Abstract
Routine hand washing with soap and water has been cited by the World Health Organization (WHO) as being "the most important hygiene measure in preventing the spread of infection". The emergence of alcohol-based hand sanitizer has stirred a debate on which hand hygiene agent offers a better protection against transient microorganism on hands. This study is devoted to the issue between the efficacy levels of antibacterial hand wash and alcohol-based hand sanitizer. It is aimed to investigate the bactericidal properties of both hand hygiene agents and also to compare the immediate level of effectiveness upon washing and also after duration of 4 hours. The efficacy level is studied in two stages; in the experimental Kirby-Bauer susceptibility test, swab samples are obtained from 10 randomly selected test subjects, inoculated and tested against antibacterial hand wash disc and hand sanitizer disc. The clinical testing for both hand hygiene agents were performed on 10 randomly selected test subjects where swab samples from the hand were taken before washing, immediately after washing and every hour consecutively until the fourth hour and are measured for turbidity after 24 hours of incubation. As a result, antibacterial hand wash exhibits a larger zone of inhibition with the mean of 17.15 ± 0.07 mm compared to hand sanitizer which is of 10.10 ± 0.74 mm in Kirby-Bauer test. On the contrary, in clinical testing both antibacterial hand wash and hand sanitizer exhibits reduction in turbidity after washing but with no distinct significant differentiation in between both agents (P>0.05). However, there is a distinct significant differentiation (P<0.05) for the first hour sample till the fourth hour sample where both agents exhibited significant differentiation (P<0.05). The increase in turbidity for hand sanitizer is less rapid compared to antibacterial hand wash and this indicates hand sanitizer offers a better protection against transient microorganism for hands. The difference in efficacy may have been partly due to the duration of hand washing. The recommended optimal duration of hand washing is at least 30 seconds. This duration seems sufficient for hand rubbing with alcohol based solutions but may not be long enough for hand washing with an antibacterial hand wash. Hence, hand rubbing with an alcohol based, waterless hand antiseptic seems to be the best method of increasing compliance with hand hygiene.


71

Evaluation of Lumbricus Rubellus (Earthworm) Extract towards the Locomotor Activity on Rat Using Open Field Test Method
Muhammad Zaim Z.A.a, Moklas M.A.M b & Syakira M.H.a

 

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Abstract
Lumbricus rubellus is a species of earthworm that categorized in the family of Lumbricidae. It is also known as the red earthworm. Previous studies had showed that Lumbricus rubellus extract consist of medical function. One of the most known researches for Lumbricus rubellus extract is 'di long' where it is commonly used in TCM. The medical properties of Lumbricus rubellus is due to the active compound contained in the extract, which is lumbrofefbrine, lumbritin, terrestro-lumbrolysin, hypoxanthine, xanthine, adenine, guanine, choline, guanidine, ornithine, lysine, serine, proline, glycine, cystine, valine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, neutral lipids, cholesterol, free fatty acids, triglycerides, complex lipids, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidyl ethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, dehydrogenase isoenzyme, esterase isoenzyme. Every active compound has their own characteristic and effect. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Lumbricus rubellus extract towards the locomotor activity on rat using open field test method. This study focus on the sedative and anti convulsion effect of the extract towards the rat by observing whether the extract enhance or inhibit the locomotor activity of rat. Acute stage study was done that carried on for 8 days. The Lumbricus rubellus crude extract were administered on 5 group of rats consist of 2 control, negative control (distilled water) and positive contol (amphetamine) and 3 treatment, low dosage (30m mg/kg), intermediate dosage (100 mg/kg) and high dosage (300 mg/kg) where the rats being put on a box size (75 x 75 x 42 cm) where the floor of the box was marked into a grid and subdivided into a small square box measuring (15 x 15 cm) squares. Results showed that low dosage (30 mg/kg) produce less significant effect (p<0.05) compare to control and other dosage where the rats locomotor activity are active, for intermediate dosage (100 mg/kg) it produce slightly significant effect (p<0.05) compare to control and other dosage where the rats locomotor activity start to become passive while for the high dosage (300 mg/kg) produce significant effect (p<0.05) compare to control and other dosage where the rats locomotor activity are passive.


 


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