Journal of Management & Science

Volume 7 No. 1 June 2009 - contents

Research articles:



Civilisational Prejudices: Some Tentative Hypotheses
Rodrigue Fontaine & Mohd Shukri Ab Yajid



This study is a literature review of how Western authors see Islam and how Muslims sees the West. This author, based on the work of Taleb (2007) argues that these perceptions are prejudiced and involve narrative fallacies. This author has identified eight generic ‘stories’ that are told. This author hypothesizes that businessmen involved in international business, to be successful, need to be aware of these cross-civilisational prejudices and manage them. In particular, they need to be aware of one’s own prejudices about The Other Party. The study finishes with four hypotheses that should be tested empirically.


CRM: A Case of Cellular Operators in Malaysia
Ali Khatibi & Abdul Jalil Ghazali



CRM and customer satisfaction has been an issue to cellular operators in Malaysia. Every one of them is aware that customer is their lifeblood. Presently there are eight types of networks, which range from analog to digital services, in Malaysia. CRM and customer satisfaction factors will be discussed from network services, operations and customer service. Meanwhile, customer satisfaction is considered as strategic parameter that, if optimized in the short run, will yield better long-term results that are critical to overall corporate success. Further, this paper will discuss and identify the CRM factors that influence the customer satisfaction. Moreover, the paper will suggest the ways to mitigate CRM issues and improve the customer satisfaction.


Mobile Telework and Globalisation
Abdul Jalil Ghazali, Mohd Shukri Ab Yajid & Ali Khatibi



Mobile teleworking has been a new phenomenon in Malaysia. This phenomenon needs to be taken in-depth consideration in promoting virtual organization. Telecommuter is an employee who works not in a central office but from their homes, cars, and other new work sites. In the increasing trend of rental and leasing costs of office space, telework can be an option for organizations to save their expenses in the long term. Meanwhile in the perspective of the teleworkers, they are able to reduce their daily travel costs to their respective offices. Therefore, teleworkers give up costly office space and communicate with the company and their customers remotely by telephone, computer or other technological tools. This paper will unveil the relationship between cost savings spectrum and telework in realizing virtual organization concept in this millennium.


K-Jawi Paint
Md Gapar b. Md Johar, Sim Liew Fong, Abdurrahman b. Ab Jalil & Zainul Fithri b. Othman



K-Jawi Paint provides paint application in Jawi scripts as an alternative way in providing basic drawing in Jawi scripts. The purpose of it is to provide user with another sort of choices in using paint application. This is because this application has the same and some extra features as the current paint application in the operating system. The advantage is that it supports the Jawi scripts in the application. This application is user friendly and also will be easy to comprehend by the user. It will also be a useful medium for user to read and write in Jawi scripts and apply it in the drawing canvas. It also provides the tools to do basic drawing and effects such as the tool box and image editing such as stretch/ skew, flip/ rotate, modify the attributes and draw opaque objects. This application is totally different from other paint application because is created specifically in Jawi scripts. This application is fully developed in java programming and it is compatible running in “Microsoft Windows” and other platform that supports java.


Rethinking Simplicity in Design: How Simple is the Simple?
Sharuddin bin Awang Kechil



This study was carried out to discover and discuss about simplicity in design. It explored the method on how to define simplicity conceptually and operationally. The main issues that have been discussed are, the application of simplicity principles in design are such as architecture, interior, industrial design, graphic and multimedia design; the relevancy of simplification in current trend of design development, method of achieving simplicity in design, and the framework for developing simplicity guidelines. Analysis was done qualitatively using data from expert opinion and audience or user perspectives. It is then propose a new concept of simplicity and the approach on how to develop a comprehensive principles or guidelines on achieving simplicity in design.

Keywords: simple, simplicity, simplicity guidelines


The Mightiest Germ Fighter against Infectious Microorganism
Ahmad Farhan A. B., Norshafarina S.& Norazrin J.



Four tests have been conducted to study the ability of colloidal silver in four different frameworks. The first test was conducted to find out whether silver rod and colloidal silver could prolong milk freshness in room temperature. The results showed no significant difference between the pH of the plain milk with the pH of the milk that contained silver rod and colloidal silver when tested with Kruskal-Wallis test (p>0.05). The second test was conducted to compare the efficacy between 3 antibiotics (Ampicillin, Vancomycin and Tetracycline) with the colloidal silver against 3 types of bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Streptococcus sp.). The results showed no significant difference between the inhibition zone size produced by colloidal silver with the inhibition zone size produced by the antibiotics when tested with Kruskal-Wallis test (p>0.05). The third test was conducted to find out the ability of liquid colloidal silver to kill bacteria. From the results, bacterial growth of culture was 0%. The final test was conducted to see whether colloidal silver could act as an antimicrobial agent in solid form rather than in liquid form. The results showed that bacterial growth of culture on the solid form of colloidal silver was 100%.

Keywords: Colloidal silver; silver rod; milk freshness; antibiotic discs; antibiotics efficacy; inhibition zone; liquid colloidal silver, solid colloidal silver.


Hepatoprotective Effects of Aqueous Extract of Phyllanthus Niruri Leaf in Paracetamol Induced Liver Damage in Rats.
Sumaty R., Rasool M., Halijah H.& Norshafarina S.



Paracetamol (acetaminophen, PCM) is widely used as an over-the-counter analgesic and antipyretic drug. Intake of a large dose of PCM may result in severe hepatic necrosis. Oxidative stress mediated by oxidative capacities of the PCM metabolite (N-acetyl-p-benzoquinoneimine (NAPQI), is considered as the main cause of hepatotoxicity of PCM. Phyllanthus niruri (Euphorbiaceae) is a well-known hepatoprotective herbal plant.The hepatoprotective activity of the aqueous extract of Phyllanthus niruri leaf was investigated against paracetamol-induced liver damage in rats. Levels of different liver marker enzymes in serum were measured in normal, control (toxicity induced) and aqueous extract of Phyllanthus niruri treated rats.At the dose of 300 mg/kg, paracetamol induced liver damage in rats as manifested by statistically no significant ( p > 0.05 ) increase in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) compared to control group. Oral pretreatment of rats with the aqueous extract of Phyllanthus niruri at the doses of 50 mg/kg,100 mg/kg,150 mg/kg and 200mg/kg body weight prior to paracetamol dosing at 300 mg/kg obtained insignificant difference in the activities of AST and ALT of the experimental groups when compared to the control group but had shows the trend of reduce.This current results suggest that aqueous extract of Phyllanthus niruri may have a potent hepatoprotective effect against paracetamol-induced liver damage in rats if the concentration of extraction increased and that no evidence of hepatotoxicity of the extract was established. The changes in body weight of the experimental rats reduced significantly at the aqueous leaf extract doses (150mg/kg & 200mg/kg) compared to the paracetamol control group. This shows the liver toxicity cause gain in weight and the poor liver toxicity lead to reduction in body weight of rats.


Effect of Lypholized Royal Jelly on Serum Cholesterol Level of Mice
Sathiya Devi.R, Snigdha Misra, Norshafarina S and Najihah M.B



Royal Jelly (RJ) is a white substance that is secreted by the hypophyrageal and mandibular gland of worker honeybees which is an essential food for the growth and longevity of queen honeybee. The aim of current study is to evaluate effect of royal jelly on serum cholesterol level of mice fed with high fat diet. About 20 IRC mice were divided in to 4 treatment group (n=5 /group): (N) received standard chow; (NRJ) received standard chow and oral administration of RJ (150mg/kg), (C) received high fat diet, and (CRJ) received high fat diet and oral administration of RJ (150mg/kg). Mice were sacrificed after 27 days of treatment and serum lipid profile was determined. Mean comparison between groups shows that total cholesterol (TC) and LDL level is lower in group NRJ (TC: 94.54+ 9.77, LDL: 8.66+4.18) and CRJ (TC: 125.11+16.35, LDL: 15.21+3.76) compared to group N (TC: 101.01+ 15.68, LDL: 12.09+ 5.00) and C (TC: 132.13+20.46, LDL: 18.64+ 3.64). Group C (TC: 132.13+20.46, LDL: 18.64+ 3.64) were the animals that are treated with high fat diet with higher total cholesterol and LDL compared to group N (TC: 101.01+ 15.68, LDL: 12.09+ 5.00) which were fed with normal chow. When group C (TC: 132.13+20.46, LDL: 18.64+ 3.64) and CRJ (TC: 125.11+16.35, LDL: 15.21+3.76) were compared, group CRJ had a total cholesterol of 5.31% less and LDL of 18.41% less than group C. It can be concluded that administration of RJ can reduce serum total cholesterol, and LDL level.


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