Journal of Management & Science

Volume 6 No. 2 December 2008 - contents

Research articles:

 

1

Myth of The Stranger In Malaysia
Rodrigue Fontaine & Mohd Shukri Ab Yajid

 

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Abstract
This paper is a qualitative study that seeks to understand how Malay entrepreneurs understand the myth of the Stranger. This myth is based on a prophetic statement in which the Prophet (PBUH) said that, “Islam began as something strange and will return as something strange so glad tidings to the strangers.” Scholars have explained this prophetic statement in detail and have stressed the dynamic nature of Muslim cultures. Muslims are supposed to question what is happening in a society and correct things if they go against Islamic teachings. Most entrepreneurs interviewed simply took the myth at face value but, in practice, questioned what is happening in Malaysian society. The implications of these findings are discussed.

Keywords: myth, Muslim world, Malays, entrepreneurs


14

Individual Competency: Comparison between Indian and Multinational Organizations
Vaneeta Aggarwal & P.T.Srinivasan

 

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Abstract
Concept of competence is being practised in organizations for many years but HR consultants have recently started concentrating on competencies as is evident from the increasing number of articles on competency. The relevance of competence lies in the fact that it provides an opportunity to agree to a common language for describing effectiveness of an organization and assessing performance. The foreign operators in India are known to be efficient and effective than their Indian counterparts. The challenge to compete and survive is more acute for Indian based organizations. So this study was conducted to compare individual competency between Indian and foreign based organizations operating in India. The results of the study consistently showed that individual competency is more in foreign based organizations operating in India than in Indian based organizations, in Manufacturing and IT sectors. The results of the study show that the difference in individual competency is one of the reasons behind more efficient foreign based organizations.


23

Justification on Intellectual Capital – A Comparative Study
Kevin Low Lock Teng & Ali Khatibi

 

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Abstract
With the development of computerization and networking capabilities, we have a significantly enhanced opportunity for sharing information and knowledge worldwide. In order for an organization to survive in these turbulent times, there is a great need for its continuous renewal by introduction of new, innovative products and processes that are based on new knowledge. As a result, the management and measurement of Intellectual Capital have attracted a lot of attention in recent years both in the media and from the academia. This paper assesses different methodologies of Intellectual Capital measurements, both from macro valuation standpoint and from the operating perspective. Valuation metrics are suggested and demonstrates on how it is applied to across section of firms. The paper also shows that there is no conceptual framework commonly accepted and there is a considerable lack of consistency both inter-country and intra-country. This paper has taken three firms from distinct industries and has applied either human, relational or structural capital metrics depending on which is the most relevant.


37

Managing Service Quality: A Case of the My Hotel
Ali Khatibi, Lau Pei Mey & David Yong Gun

 

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Abstract
My Hotel is one of the most opulent hotels in Malaysia. Given the increasing competitive phenomenon in the hospitality industry, the management of My Hotel wanted to find out the customers’ expectation and perception towards the service quality of the hotel, and the levels of customer satisfaction. The results indicated that most of the attributes of service quality did not meet the respondents’ expectation. The largest gaps were the attributes related to “Tangibility” factors.


42

A Study on The Synergistic Anti-Bacterial Effect of Honey And Tetracycline Against Streptococcus Pyogenes
Khor M.C., Nordiana S., Noor Azliza Wani & Farizan A.

 

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Abstract
The present study was aimed to investigate the synergistic antibacterial effect of commercial honey on Streptococcus pyogenes when incorporated with tetracycline. Agar dilution and Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method have been used to evaluate the antibacterial activity of honey on the stated organism. In the former technique, it involved preparation of different concentrations of honey (V/V) in Mueller-Hinton (MH) agar to yield final concentrations of 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, 10%, 15% and 20%. Following overnight incubation, the agar plates were observed for any inhibition of growth. In the latter method, 30μL of honey with different concentrations ranging from 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70% to 80% was slowly injected onto the blank disks and tetracycline. Tetracycline disks and distilled water serve as the positive and negative control, respectively. The results of both techniques were inconsistent as the former found that honey started to inhibit bacterial growth at 10% (V/V) of concentration while the latter exhibits this effect only at 40% (V/V) of concentration. Addition of honey to tetracycline was significantly increased the inhibitory zones compared with using either of them alone (p<0.05). At the lowest honey concentration of 10%, combination of both produced mean inhibitory zone of 16.6 +- 0.8 mm whilst the antibiotic alone only caused zone size of 15.1 +- 1.2 mm. At the highest concentration of 80%, mean inhibitory zone for combination of both was 19.5 +- 1.4 mm and that of tetracycline was 15.2 +- 1.1 mm. In this concentration, the antimicrobial effect of honey (14.6 +- 1.1 mm) was apparently lower than its combination with the antibiotic. As honey concentration elevated to 80%, its pH was gradually reduced from 5.4 to 3.9. The increased bacterial susceptibility which implied by larger inhibitory zones indicated the synergistic effect of added honey to the antibiotic tested. In the present research, acidity, hyper-osmolarity and perhaps the presence of unique phytochemical components in commercial honey contribute to its antibacterial role. In conclusion, honey as a cheap, non-toxic and natural remedy incorporated with tetracycline may consider as an alternative, effective and safer treatment for Group A Streptococcal (GAS) infections. Nevertheless, the effectiveness of this combination on human has yet to be determined.


54

Co-existence of Hemolytic and Non-hemolytic Bacteria in Internet Café
Sarmini M, Norshafarina SK & Syarifah Nursyimi SI

 

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Abstract
As internet café are constantly used by myriad of individuals, bacterial presence has been revealed on computer mouse which can be a potential source for cross infection. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the bacteriological spectrum of hemolytic and non-hemolytic bacteria in internet café. A sterile cotton swab dipped in saline solution was used to swab the entire surface of computer mouse for sample collection. Samples obtained were inoculated immediately onto a blood agar plate and was subjected to period of incubation of 24 hours at 37oC.Culture results were then recorded and further identification was done through conventional and microscopic observation. Biochemical test was carried out in aid of a standard reference to further determine the type of strains which are present on the sample. Potential strains which were found on the computer mouse included five types of beta-hemolytic strain consisting of Bordetella bronchoseptica, Actinomycetes spp., Listeria monocytogenes and Acinobacter heamolyticus and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus. This was followed by Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci which indicated an alpha-hemolytic culture properties whereas samples that showed non-hemolytic characteristics consist of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermis, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, and Micrococcus luteus. This study demonstrated that bacterial contamination of computer mouse was prevalent and normal individuals who act as asymptomatic carrier had a higher chance of transmission via close proximity of palm surface and the surface of computer mouse. It is believes that this study will help in creating awareness of appropriate hygiene and decontamination strategies among the public on hemolytic and non-hemolytic bacterial contamination encountered in internet cafes where information technology is becoming over whelming and possible pathogens are disregarded.


61

The Antibacterial Effects of Forsythia suspense and Houttuynia cordata on the Urinary Tract Infections
Chong Y. M., Venothini R., Sangeetha N. & Kamaludin A.

 

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Abstract
This study was conducted to determine the antibacterial properties of methanol extracts from Forsythia suspense and Houttuynia cordata against six common urinary tract bacteria using disc diffusion method. The bacteria used were Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Citrobacter freundii, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis. Blank paper discs impregnated with five different concentrations of the extracts which were 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% were tested against all six bacteria with chloramphenicol as positive standard and 100% dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) as negative control. The plates were incubated overnight at 37oC. The resulting inhibition zones exhibited by the bacterial strains that were sensitive towards the plant extracts were in the range of 7.0 to 8.0 mm. The extracts of the two plants had significant effects (p < 0.5) on E. coli, P. aeruginosa, P. mirabilis, E. faecalis and C. freundii. Houttuynia cordata inhibits the bacteria with significance outcomes (p < 0.5) on E. coli, P. mirabilis, P. aeruginosa, E. faecalis and C. freundii compared to Forsythia suspense.


76

Large-Scale Systems:Skills and Tools for Developers
Christopher L. Williams & Raymond Greenlaw

 

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Abstract
Large-scale systems are becoming the norm in an ever-increasingly complex world. The idea of a simple system that lives in a single location is no longer recognized as the standard setup of a computer system. As these large- and ultra-large-scale systems are designed and put into place, there will be more of a demand for developers that not only know how to program, but how to manage all the complex aspects involved with working on a large, complex, and decentralized system. Carnegie Mellon’s Software Engineering Institute does an excellent job identifying research areas in multiple disciplines that must be explored further before these systems can be designed, created, maintained, and used in an efficient manner. This paper identifies skills and tools that developers can use to become more-suited towards the types of environments that they will be working in with large-scale systems. The topics discussed here are revision control, design patterns, unit testing, distributed computing, interprocess communication, concurrency, threading, agile software development, and interaction design.


100

Performance Analysis of Optical WDM Networks in the Presence of FWM for Various Types of Fiber
Yasin M. Karfaa, M. Ismail, Abbou F. M, S. Shaari, & Majumder S.

 

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Abstract
Four-wave mixing (FWM) can be a major source of performance deterioration in optical WDM systems with narrow channel spacing and low chromatic dispersion. In this paper, we investigate theoretically using the semi analytic approach with numerical solutions the influence of four wave mixing of nonlinear phenomena as a fiber nonlinear property on the performance of optical WDM systems giving the limitations that are imposed on the networks due to this important factor. The investigation included the use of various types of fiber, various launched powers, various numbers of channels and various fiber lengths-distances-nodes numbers. It was found that all these varieties are effective on the overall crosstalk penalties and performance limitations, but the most effective is the four-wave mixing crosstalk as a system degradation factor. Hence to improve the network efficiency when designing the networks, these effective sources of impairments must be considered with the best suggestions.


 


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