Journal of Management & Science

Volume 5 No. 2 December 2007 - contents

Research articles:



Strategic Thinking
Mohd Shukri Ab. Yajid, & Rodrigue Fontaine



This study discusses ways of improving strategic thinking. First, the concept of strategic thinking is explained and contrasted with strategic planning. The importance of systems thinking and systems dynamics as components of strategic thinking are then explored. The usefulness Management Flight Simulators (MFSs) in developing strategic thinking is discussed. The author then shares some qualitative data about using MFS to develop strategic thinking among postgraduate students in Malaysia. The overall conclusion is that using a MFS can help develop strategic thinking among learners but that MFSs should be used alongside other interactive teaching tools.

Keywords: strategic thinking, Management Flight Simulator, systems thinking


Malay Values and its relationship to Travel Orientation in Malaysia
Jeannot Abdul Karim, Mukesh Kumar & Khairul Anuar Rezo



The majority of research on ethnicity in Malaysia has concentrated on human resource management mainly comparing management styles, values and leadership differences between Malaysians and Westerners or between the various ethnic groups in Malaysia. Consumer behavior research in Malaysia has mainly been directed towards differences between the various ethnic groups in Malaysia. Researches on differences within specific groups are rare if any on consumer behavior, especially on the Malays which are the predominant majority ethnic group in Malaysia. The purpose of the research is to develop a valid measurement of Malay Values that is tested for psychometric validity. The scale measuring Malay Values was then correlated with the construct Travel Ethnicity Orientation. The results indicate that there is a positive relationship between Malay Values and Travel Ethnicity Orientation during domestic vacations in Malaysia.

Keywords: Malay Values, Measurement Scale, Consumer Behavior, Domestic Tourism.


Attitude toward Online Advertising: An Initial Examination of Malaysian Consumers
Syed Shah Alam, Asmahani Aswaddalai, & Ali Khatibi



The fact that many companies now advertise their products and services online shows that there is a huge potential benefit for advertising agencies to gain if they know how to play their cards right. Essentially, once the advertising agencies have some fundamental knowledge on the attitude toward internet advertising in Malaysia, then they can develop the right target audience for their advertising campaigns. This research would assist the advertising agencies to select the appropriate advertising media for their products and services by providing clear results on attitude of online users toward Internet advertising. Finally, it is hopeful that the implication and conclusion that are presented in this research will help speed up the future growth of Internet advertising.


Bovine Leptin Gene Polymorphism in the Mafriwal Dairy Cattle of Malaysia
Yow W. K., Halijah H., Jothi M.P. & Kourosh K.



Polymorphisms in the coding regions of the leptin gene in cattle have been associated with serum leptin concentration, feed intake, milk yield and body mass. In cattle, the leptin gene is located on chromosome 4. It consists of three exons and two introns, however only two exons are translated into protein. The objectives of this research were to evaluate polymorphism at the leptin gene in Mafriwal dairy cattle using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and to determine the allele and genotype frequencies. DNA was extracted from the blood of 26 Mafriwal dairy cattle. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was carried out with the intron between the first two exons (intron 2) as the target region. The primers used were 5’-TGGAGTGGCTTGTTATTTTCTTCT-3’ and 5’-GTCCCCGCTTCTGGCTACCTAACT-3’ as forward and reverse primers, respectively. A strategy employing was used to amplify a 422 bp from blood of the dairy cattles. The PCR products were digested using the restriction enzyme BfuCI. The results revealed two alleles: allele A, which was 390 bp, and allele B, which was 303 bp. The genotype frequencies were 0.846 for AA and 0.154 for AB; there were no BB genotypes observed. The allele frequencies were 0.923 and 0.077 for A and B, respectively. These results reveal the presence of leptin gene polymorphisms in the Mafriwal dairy cattle and the predominance of allele A in this population.

Keywords: Leptin gene;Polymorphism__


Energy and Nutrient Intakes Among Women In the Village of Tok Muda
Snigdha Misra, Seti Haireyah, Norshafarina Shari, Asbi Ali & Junainah Abdul Hamid



The study was conducted to assess the nutritional status of one hundred and eleven Malay adult females, aged 19-50 years in Tok Muda village, Klang, Selangor Darul Ehsan. They were selected by simple random sampling from this village. This paper highlights findings on the nutrient intakes, body mass index (BMI) status, socio-economic status, clinical assessment and the micronutrient (iron) status of the adult women. Socio-economic results show that majority of adult women were housewives (60.4%), had attended secondary school (70.3%) with the moderate incomes (32.4%) from RM 1000-RM 1499. Mean intake of energy and other nutrients of the all groups was found to be lower than the Malaysian Recommended Nutrient Index (RNI). Intake of protein seemed to be very close to the requirements where the percentages of deficit for RNI vary from 18.1% to 32.0%. From the BMI measurements, it is found that more than half of the adult women (50.5%) had normal weight with mean weight 22.4± 4.4. This study also shows that problem related with the weight such as overweight (23.4%) and underweight 26.1%) had a remark with the similar percentages. About 86% of the respondents had normal haemoglobin values whereas 4% of the pregnant mothers had less than 11 g/dL with mean 13.1 ± 1.1haemoglobin levels. In summary, nutritional status of adult women needs to be improved since there is a risk for some major nutritional deficiencies.

Keywords: Nutritional status, females, rural area, BMI, Haemoglobin


Bacteriology of Postoperative Wound Infections
Pallavi J , Tang C. W, Asbi A



Wound infections are the commonest hospital acquired infection in surgical patients. Postoperative wound infection contributes significantly to the morbidity and mortality. This study was undertaken to identify the pattern of the bacteriological isolates responsible for postoperative trauma. Pus from 60 patients with delayed onset of postoperative wound infection were collected aseptically from selected hospitals in Klang Valley and examined for isolation by cultivating on specific enriched media and further identification was done by standard microscopic and biochemical tests. Of the 60 specimens examined, 43 exhibited wound infections. The microbial spectrum consisted of Staphylococcus aureus which accounted 32.5% of total postoperative wound infections, Escherichia coli (23.5%), Staphylococcus epidermidis (14.0%), Bacillus cereus (11.6%), Proteus vulgaris (11.6%), Serratia marcescens (4.6%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (2.2%). The percentage distributions of infections in surgical procedure were found to be herniorraphy (30.2%), incision and drainage (23.3%), perianal surgery (20.9%), appendectomy (14.0%) and breast surgery (11.6%). However, S. aureus was the predominant bug. This study showed the importance of multi-disciplinary approach in implementing local guidelines in healthcare institutions mainly pertaining to surgery to reduce morbidity and mortality.

Keywords: Postoperative wound infection, surgical site infection, hospital acquired infection.


Assessment of Periodontal Regenerative Therapy by Texture Analysis of X-Ray Digital Images.
Md Gapar Md Johar, V.Ramaswamy, K.S.Hareesha & Mallikarjuna S. Holi



The objective of the present work is to assess the regenerative therapy in the periodontal intrabony defect which is relied upon surgical re-entry, based on X-ray images and manual measurements. The purpose of this study is to assess the growth taking place between two teeths by analyzing the texture features of post surgical bone fill image measured at re-entry procedure. Pre-treatment and a nine months surgical re-entry of post-treatment bone fill radiographs were taken along with clinical measurements. All radiographs were digitally scanned at 600 dpi and analyzed after equalizing the images on a computer. The analysis is carried out on region of interest (ROI) of pre-treatment and post-treatment digital images in the middle of the defect in the oral cavity of the two teeths. The statistical significance for both pre and post treatment analysis of paired data sets of patients in the age group of 35 to 50 years is studied. The student ' t ' test was also conducted on the data sets on the statistical parameters. The result shows a significant difference ( p < 0.005 ) between the pre-treatment and post-treatment images indicating a growth between two teeths.

Keywords: Texture, Bone regeneration, Periodontal therapy, X-ray images, Feature analysis, edge detection.


Channel Spacing Effects on Cross-phase Modulation Crosstalk in WDM Networks for Various Fiber Types
Yasin M. Karfaa, M. Ismail, Abbou F. M, S. Shaari & Majumder S. P



In this paper, we present a theoretical analysis of the noise resulting from cross-phase modulation in an optical WDM transmission system. Analytical approach has been used to evaluate the bit error rate (BER) performance limitation of a WDM transmission system imposed by crosstalk due to cross-phase modulation and the influence of changing channel spacing for various fiber types on the (BER) and the cross-phase modulation noise. Mathematical expressions are derived and solved that describe this fiber nonlinearity impairment in a multi-channel optical fiber network with highlighting the mitigation techniques. Numerical results demonstrate the validity of the analysis and theoretical expressions to have an insight about this nonlinear effect under investigation.

Keywords: cross-phase modulation, nonlinear effects, channel spacing, wavelength division multiplexing, bit error rate.


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