Journal of Management & Science

Volume 5 No. 1 June 2007 - contents

Research articles:



Acceptance and Perception on Internet: A Comparative Study of Internet Users in Malaysia and Singapore.
Goi Chai Lee, A. Ali Khatibi, Mohd Shukri Ab. Yajid, Amat Taap Manshor



The objective of this study was to identify the acceptance and perception of Internet users on the Internet in Malaysia and Singapore. Even the knowledge on Internet and ICT can be considered high, but number of the Internet users shopping online for both countries are low. The main reasons not buying online because of they still believe that traditional-based shopping is much secure compared to Internet shopping because they are able to touch and see the product in person before buying it. Most of the survey respondents use the Internet for communication and information gathering. The respondents' perceptions of the Web site main problems for both countries are Web site tool so long to load, confusing and errors. The respondents also think that they did not face critical problems with Internet shopping


E-model for Transportation Problem of Linear Stochastic Fractional Programming
V. Charles, S. Irene Kavitha & Nor Aliza Mokhtar



This paper deals with the so-called transportation problem of linear stochastic fractional programming, and emphasizes the wide applicability of LSFP. The transportation problem, received this name because many of its applications involve in determining how to optimally transport goods. However, some of its applications (e.g., production scheduling) actually have nothing to do with transportation. The said special class of transportation problem has two distinct costs matrix in which costs involved in the problem are random in nature, and the demand vector under study is also random. The proposed E-model attempts to maximize the profit gained per unit of shipping cost, subject to regular supply constraints along with stochastic demand constraints. Solution procedure has been provided to optimize the said problem.

Keywords: Transportation Problem, Fractional Programming, Stochastic Programming, Sign Technique.


Methodology Framework Model Determination of Information Technology Strategic Planning Contents For Public Higher Institutions in Malaysia
Bakhtiar Md Shaari, Abd Razak Hamdan & Aziz Deraman



This paper proposed how the contents of information technology strategic planning (ITSP) in organisations especially Malaysian education institutions can be determined during developing the IT strategic planning. Strategic planning for IT (information technology) is important and it is considerably required by the education institutions to confront an impact of information technology and its high competition. A framework model of ITSP contents is produced specialised in public education institutions and can be accessed by comparing some process element procedures of a few selective guidelines of ITSP. A suggested methodology will assist in referring a guideline of ITSP which was prepared by Malaysian Administrative Modernisation and Management Planning Unit (MAMPU) whose scope of contents is very wide and general. The selective guidelines of ITSP have been analysed and the results shown that the best procedure of process elements for strategic planning with the compatibility contents of ITSP is identified. By empirical research, a questionnaire was developed and had been sent to IT experts from government sectors, public and private institutions in evaluation a proposal of items sample of ITSP contents. The result from the questionnaires could determine the strength of items sample which is proposed while developing ITSP for education institutions. The methodology framework model to determine ITSP contents could assist in developing a framework for a new ITSP of a public education institutions in managing IT infrastructure more effective and efficient.

Keywords: Strategic Planning, Information Technology, Public Higher Education, Institutions, Procedure, Questionnaire


A Theoretical Framework on the Use of Database Management Systems
Mohd Noah A. Rahman, Afzaal H. Seyal, Awg Yussof Awg Mohamed & Irwan M. Mashud



The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) has been widely used in information systems research. This study focuses on the use of database management systems (DBMS) as the central theme of a generic theoretical framework. Experiences of DBMS uses among organisations dominated the IS literature. A stage of normative model was developed to test two factors: database training and perceived benefits, on the use of DBMS. Statistical analysis reveals that both latent variables remain to be fundamental determinants for the use of DBMS. The implications of these findings are discussed in this paper.

Keywords: Database, DBMS, Perceived Benefits


Modern versus Postmodern: Implications for the Teaching of Visual Language
Sharuddin Awang Kechil



This study was carried out to examine the phenomenon of Modernism and Postmodernism and its growing connection to graphic design education. It examines how and why these two isms were exploited by visual artists, and were then applied to graphic design education. The main factor that has been defined was the concept and innovation of modernism and post-modernism movement and the influences for the techniques of visual composition. The analysis of this research is concerning the visual expression of form and the content that led to the compositional strategy. Analysis was done using the schematic and morphological method. It is then suggest the new approach of teaching visual language, using qualitative data from argument of graphic design scholars and practitioners. This new approach of visual language is based on the reflection of Modernism and Postmodernism theory.

Keywords: modern, modernism, postmodern, postmodernism, deconstruction, discourse, visual language


Association of Diet and Lifestyle with Antioxidant Levels Amongst the Students of KUTPM and PTPL
Sunthara Murthi A, Nordiana Suhada MT, Indah MA, Mohd Elias, Uma Palanisamiy



Antioxidants serve as natural protection for organisms against the excessive free radical attack by the enzymatic and chemical detoxification system. The capacity of the antioxidant defense system is exceeded by free radical load that cause damage to cells and tissues. These free radicals caused by improper diet and unhealthy lifestyles can lower the antioxidant status in our body. The aim of this study is to establish the association of diet and lifestyle with antioxidant levels in male and female students. Biological tests were used to evaluate the total antioxidant status among the students. The antioxidant status was assessed in 61 male and 61 female KUTPM and PTPL students together with a questionnaire study. It was revealed from these studies that there is a negative correlation with male respondents compared to female respondents in diet, lifestyle and antioxidant status. A high antioxidant status was allocated as 1.3 to 2.0 mM while 0.5 to 1.3mM as the low antioxidant status. Female students showed highest (70.5%) antioxidant status compared to male students (11.5%) which was above 1.3 mM. Female students having low antioxidant status were less in number, 18 compared to the 54 male students. The factors that show negative correlation in male respondents are associated with improper diet, smoking, alcohol consumption and no protection against sun exposure. Male students who consumed antioxidant vegetables regularly are far less (39.3%) than female students (63.9%), while the regular fruit consumption of females are was 19.7% compared to male students (14.7%). This could be the reason for exhibiting the high antioxidant status among female students. A significant (p=0.00) difference between male (26.2%) and female (1.6%) students is seen in their smoking habit. 14 male smokers with low antioxidant status, 47 female non-smokers with high antioxidant level show the correlation between smoking habit and antioxidant level among the students. A significant (p=0.01) difference between male and female in alcohol consumption was also observed. It can be concluded that there exists a strong correlation between antioxidant status of the male students and female students with their diet and lifestyle. In addition, male students displayed negative correlation while female, positive correlation with the antioxidant status was observed. This study is important for it establishes the detrimental effects of diet and lifestyle on antioxidant status among students in KUTPM and PTPL.


Processing of Biopsy in Histopathology: A Comparative Study of the Impact on Immunohistochemical Staining on Specimens Processed Using Conventional Histoprocessing and a Microwave and Vacuum Assisted Tissue Processing
S.K. Norshafarina, Asbi B.A., Lalitha B. & Pathamanathan R.



The study on the effect of a fully automated microwave (MW) assisted ultra rapid tissue processor (URTP) RH-1 on immunohistochemical (IHC) examination for surgical pathology reports that incorporates MW fixation and produces consistent high quality sections that are scarce in this country. Therefore the study was done to observe a rapid new method of tissue processing using a continuous-throughput technique. Immunohistochemistry using the ChemMateTMDAKO EnVision protocol (ENVP) indirect method was performed on processed tissues (10 pairs of breast cancer and 20 pairs of tonsils) utilizing designated primary antibodies such as Pan-cytokeratin (MNF 116), Leucocyte Common Antigen (LCA), Estrogen Receptor (ER) to detect various putative proteins in cells. The effect of this method on the quality of histomorphology, histochemistry and immunohistochemistry of processed tissue was compared with that of serial tissue sections processed by the conventional processing technique. Data of frequency distribution were assertively diagrammed using simple bar charts and designated slide images were captured using a high resolution digital image capture system. The results demonstrated, IHC stains were indistinguishable or better (53%) in the URTP processed tissues. Protein antigenicity is less altered so that rapid IHC reactions occur with higher sensitivity and intensity. Moreover, use of the URTP enhanced safety by eliminating formalin and xylene from the procedure. This study found the new system preserves proteins better than the conventional method. It also shortens the processing time from the receipt of fresh or prefixed tissue and reduces the volume of other chemicals. In conclusion, the new method impacts overall patient management by allowing for considerably shorter turnaround times for completion of surgical pathology reports.

Immunohistochemical; Conventional histoprocessing; microwave histoprocessing


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