Journal of Management & Science

Volume 4 No. 2 December 2006 - contents

Research articles:



Authentic Materials as Text Books in ESL Classes.
P.K Sishra, A.R. Parhi, Nor Hashima M.S, Amat Taap M



English is becoming the world's language of the 21st Century and this is no time to discourage residents or immigrants from learning English. English is now the second most widely spoken language in the world, with only Chinese dialects spoken by more people. English is overwhelmingly the second language of choice for non-English-speaking people. It is the official language of the European Central Bank and the working language of the Asian trade group ASEAN.

This paper aims at studying the ways in which the news papers, magazines, radio, and television and internet can be used as a substitute for text books in English as Second Language (ESL) classrooms. These authentic materials can play a great role in breaking the fear factor of our students of staying away from language classes. The paper tries to find out the creative and innovative ways to teach language through the real world which is outside the classrooms.


Employability Frontier and Relative Efficiency: A Case Study of Hospitality and Food Service Management Graduates
Muhamad Naim K, Mukesh Kumar, Zaleha R



Does academic performance alone is sufficient to determine the employability of students? A sample of 59 fresh graduates with the specialization in Hotel and Tourism Management (HTM), who have just entered into the job markets, has been taken to see how their performance in graduation and their previous qualification have helped to get them the right job and right salary. This paper measures the relative efficiency of students in terms of job employability in Malaysia by using the non-parametric model of data envelopment analysis. The results reveal that the efficiency in terms of employability for some of the students is much below the potential level in spite of a relatively good entry and exit qualification and a better overall academic performance. It might be possibly because of their family background, economic and social factors, overall outlook, smartness, communication skills etc. There is ample opportunity to improve the employability of most of the students who graduated with a specialization in Hospitality and Food Service Management.

Keywords: Relative Efficiency, Employability, Data Envelopment Analysis, Entry & exit qualifications, Academic performance.


Is Black-Scholes Model Reliable In Pricing Warrant? Case Study of Malaysia
N.A Azizan, B.K. Hong, Z. Ahmad



This paper addresses the question of how well the best-known warrant/option pricing model – the Black-Scholes model – work in the stock exchange of Malaysia. Results of most studies (Rubinstein, 1981; Geske, Roll, & Shastri, 1983; Scott, 1987) have been positive in that the Black-Scholes model generates warrant values fairly close to the actual prices at which warrants trade especially for shorter term maturity warrants. Nevertheless, some regular empirical failures of the model have been noted (Macbeth & Merville, 1980; Lauterbach & Schultz, 1990). The Black-Scholes model tends to overvalue ‘in-the-money’ warrants and undervalue ‘out-of-the-money’ warrants. The objective of this paper is to test the warrant market behavior in relation to the application of Black-Scholes model to a relatively small and less liquid market – Kuala Lumpur Stock Exchange (KLSE). This study considered various pricing biases related to warrant strike price, time to maturity, volatility, and pre- and post-Asian financial crisis period. This paper has tested the model using daily prices of 74 sample warrants in the year 1994-2003. The results revealed that overall model prices were significantly below market prices and further indicated both the model and market prices deviate in certain systematic patterns as for the above various pricing biases. It was concluded that users of Black-Scholes model should carefully observe the systematic pattern of deviation when choosing an investment of warrants in the Malaysian stock exchange.


Factors Affecting Protease Activity of Kesinai Crude Extract
Ruzaina I., Asbi A., Junainah A.H., Sipat A.B, Shuhaimi M, Yazid A.M, Karidah M



In the present study, the effects of pH, sodium metabisulphite, and temperature on the protease activity of Kesinai (Streblus asper) crude leaf extract were assessed. The optimal value of pH and temperature of the milk coagulation activity was 7.2 and 70°c respectively. Protease activity increased with the increasing of sodium metabisulphite concentration up to 10mM.

Key words: Kesinai , pH, Temperature, sodium metabisulphite, protease


The Effect of Lemongrass (Cymbopogon Citratus) Supplementation to the Total Antioxidant Status in Induced Hypercholesterolemia Mice
Mohd Adzim Khalili R., Nik Mohd Hafiz A., Norhayati A.H, Siti Muskinah M.



Cymbopogon citrates or lemongrass is one of the food flavors known for its cooking properties especially in Asian region. The lemongrass also has been used traditionally to cure many diseases by the natives in this region. This study was undertaken to observe the effect of lemongrass supplementation to the total antioxidant status in normal and hypercholesterolemia mice. A total of 40 Balp-C male mice were used in this study. The mice were divided into four groups according to the diet intake that is basal diet (N), basal diet with 15% lemongrass (15%L), basal diet with 1% cholesterol (1%C) and basal diet with 15% lemongrass and 1% cholesterol (15%LC). The study period was 5 weeks. About 4 mL of blood was taken from the aorta two times during the studies, during baseline and final week of the supplementation. The total antioxidant status was determined by using FRAP method. Results show that there was an increase value in FRAP value for normal and lemongrass supplementation group, N (4.30%), 15%L (2.8%), and 15%LC (2.0%). For the group 1%C its shows a decrease in value for the FRAP value, mainly due to lack of antioxidant activity in the diet because of the present of cholesterol in the diet and contribution of free radical activity in mice body system itself. The antioxidant level in the fourth group has a significant changes (p<0.05) because the supplementation of lemongrass will contribute the natural antioxidant in the body itself, in the same time diminished the plaque formation by reducing the ability of LDL oxidization. It can be concluded that the supplementation of lemongrass can be used to increase the total antioxidant status in the mice and prevent the cardiovascular risk factor.

Keywords: Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus), total antioxidant status (TAS) and hypercholesterolemia mice.


Ten Computer Science Breakthroughs.
Williams C.L, Greenlaw R,



Computer science has a brief but rich history. Many important breakthroughs have occurred that were significant due to their intellectual merit, their timing, and/or their impact on society. Along the way fortunes have been made and lost, and in some cases, regained. The rapid evolution of the field calls for a survey paper to put some of these breakthroughs in perspective. Each of these discoveries has helped advance the field in some important regard. The depth and breadth of computer science force us to be selective in the results to include here. This paper attempts to list discoveries that not only advanced their specific domain, but also the field of computing in general. The breakthroughs discussed are Turing Machines, Moore’s Law, recursion, NP-Completeness, the Internet, the Web, high-level programming languages, handheld and wireless devices, and the Human Genome Project.

Key Words: Programming,


A Brief Overview of Current Technology for JAWI Character Recognition.
Jalil A, Shar, Md. Gapar M.J, L.F. Sim



This paper presents current optical character recognition (OCR) technology for Arab-based characters in an attempt to produce OCR which has the ability to recognize Jawi script in an image. Basically, this is an exploratory applied research which reviews available literature by using an informal discussion approach. Fortunately, the result can provide significant insight into OCR field. In particular, this paper briefly identifies Jawi characters used in Jawi writing system. It is followed by a brief review on current OCR software application and hardware as guidance including the standard of measuring the accuracy of the textual output. The standard OCR procedure which consists of scanning, zoning, segmentation and classification is presented as well.

Keywords: OCR, Jawi script, Jawi characters, OCR procedure, accuracy


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