Journal of Management & Science

Volume 3 No. 1 June 2005 - contents

Research articles:

 

1

Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Community Acquired Klebsiella Pneumoniae. Pan Shing Yi, J. Pallavi, Asbi Ali, Junainah A.H.

 

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Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Community Acquired Klebsiella Pneumoniae. Pan Shing Yi, J. Pallavi, Asbi Ali, Junainah A.H. (vol.3 no.2, 2005) p.1

Abstract
Klebsiella pneumoniae is amongst the commonest gram-negative bacteria encountered by physicians worldwide as a potential pathogen causing community-acquired pneumonia. Klebsiella pneumoniae is reported to be resistant to third generation cephalosporins. A prospective study was undertaken to identify the antibiotic susceptibility patterns of Klebsiella pneumoniae. Throat swabs of 210 individuals with suspected throat infection, mild cough, and cold and fever were screened and the samples were further subjected to isolation and characterization by standard procedures. One hundred and eight isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae were obtained from these 210 individuals. Susceptibility tests of Klebsiella pneumoniae were done by using Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. Antibiotics used were Chloramphenicol (CH), Trimethoprim (TM), Penicillin G (PG), Ampicillin (AP), Amoxicillin (AM), Piperacillin (PI), Gentamicin (GE), Netilmicin (NE), Ciprofloxacin (CI), Ceftriaxone (CR), Cefaclor (CE), Azithromycin (AZ) and Meropenem (ME). All 108 isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae were found to be sensitive to AM, CR, CH, CI, GE, ME, NE, PI, TM while only a few isolates were intermediately sensitive to PG, AP and AZ. Gentamicin, Netilmicin, Amoxicillin, Ampicillin, and Azithromycin should be considered as first choice of drugs to treat community-acquired pneumonia. Use of higher drugs should be eschewed, which in turn will help prevent the emergence of drug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae. The increasing prevalence of bacteria resistant to antibiotics is now a clinical reality, so regular surveillance is necessary for better therapy.
Key Words: Klebsiella pneumoniae, antibiotic, community-acquired pneumonia.


8

Seasonality in Asia-Pacific Stock Markets. Noor Azuddin Yakob.

 

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Seasonality in Asia-Pacific Stock Markets. Noor Azuddin Yakob. (vol.3 no.2, 2005) p.8

Abstract
This paper examines seasonality in the Asia Pacific stock market. Based on the most recent data, the paper employs the GARCH (1.1) and GARCH (1.1)-M models to study the day-of-the-week, month-of-the-year, and monthly and holiday effects in the stock markets of ten Asia Pacific countries, namely Australia, China, Hong Kong, Japan, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan. Evidence to the presence of day-of-the-week effect is documented in five countries; month-of-the-year effect is detected in eight countries; monthly effect is reported in six countries, and holiday effect is found in four countries. In most cases, the calendar effects cannot be associated with conditional risks. This study shows that stock market seasonality is a global phenomenon that continues to persist today. Although the presence of seasonality implies the lack of informational efficiency in the stock market, this study does not refute the validity of the Efficient Market hypothesis as the presence of significant returns is not tantamount to abnormal profits. Further studies are necessary to ensure that stock market seasonality can yield returns significantly in excess of transaction costs.


33

A Comparative Study of Returns from Unit Trusts and EPF. Arichantheran Sivagnanam, Bokkasam Sasidhar.

 

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A Comparative Study of Returns from Unit Trusts and EPF. Arichantheran Sivagnanam, Bokkasam Sasidhar. (vol.3 no.2, 2005) p.33

Abstract
In Malaysia, the government has set a mandatory retirement age of 55, (56 in some cases) for all employees. A statutory body deducts a percentage of earnings of the employees during their working years, and deposits it in a fund called the Employees Provident Fund (EPF). This is a non-withdrawal savings account expected to help make up for the post- retirement loss of income. However, it has been statistically observed that only 20% of the retirees are able to subsist solely on their EPF for more than five years after their retirement. Considering inflation and increasing expenses during advancing years, we surmise that the amount of EPF savings would not be enough to see one through one’s retirement years. This is more so if the EPF keeps giving less and less dividends as the years go by. Therefore, prudent investment in instruments that maximize returns is crucial for welfare during one’s old age. Unit Trusts are one such instrument. In this study, we analyze the returns from Unit Trusts and the EPF and compare them for their consistency and real returns. This study attempts to prove to EPF contributors that their savings can earn higher returns if they consistently invest a percentage of it in Unit Trusts. As such, it would be wise for EPF contributors to transfer funds from their EPF savings to Unit Trusts on a regular basis. This is permitted by the EPF Board.
Key words: Unit Trust, Employee Provident Fund, Funds, Investment Policy, Study, Optimal Returns.


48

Fast Food Franchising In Malaysia: Some Implementation Issues. Mohd. Hizam Hanafiah, Zizah Che Senik .

 

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Fast Food Franchising In Malaysia: Some Implementation Issues. Mohd. Hizam Hanafiah, Zizah Che Senik . (vol.3 no.2, 2005) p.48

Abstract
Fast food restaurant business has been growing rapidly in Malaysia for the last 10 years as a result of the changing lifestyle and increasing disposable income leading to greater acceptability of the concept of “eating out” among all sections of the society. One of the phenomena associated with these changes is the growth of local and international franchise system in food sales in Malaysia. Our study covers 44 fast food entrepreneurs and is intended to identify franchise implementation issues such as human resource management, marketing, and use of information technology, as well as practical problems and future prospects. In addition, we deal with the effect of the educational background and business experience of entrepreneurs on the management of franchises. Implications of the study for future franchises are also discussed.
Key Words: Franchisor, franchisee, fast food business, franchising in Malaysia, entrepreneurs.


63

The Effects of TQM on Employees’ Affective Reactions. Ooi Keng Boon, Lorraine Vellapan, V. Arumugam, Nooh Abu Bakar, Alex Loke Kim Yin.

 

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The Effects of TQM on Employees’ Affective Reactions. Ooi Keng Boon, Lorraine Vellapan, V. Arumugam, Nooh Abu Bakar, Alex Loke Kim Yin. (vol.3 no.2, 2005) p.63

Abstract
Though there has been extensive research on TQM practices, there is no empirical work on the impact of TQM on affective reactions of workers. The study reported here investigates precisely this impact. It focuses on. six major semiconductor sub-contracting organizations in Malaysia. A total of 377 employees were surveyed, and the result of the regression analysis supports the proposed model. The model predicts that employees’ perceptions of TQM practices are significantly linked to their affective reactions. Those who have a greater awareness of TQM practices exhibit greater job satisfaction, job involvement, career satisfaction and organizational commitment. Empowerment as a dominant TQM practice elicits strong affective reactions. The limitations and implications of the study are also extensively discussed.
Key Words: TQM, employees’ affective reactions, Malaysia, semiconductor sub-contracting industry.


88

Honeypot: A Novel Idea to Discover Network Security Vulnerabilities. Ali Bakhtiar Nizamani, Jamalul-lail Abdul Manan.

 

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Honeypot: A Novel Idea to Discover Network Security Vulnerabilities. Ali Bakhtiar Nizamani, Jamalul-lail Abdul Manan. (vol.3 no.2, 2005) p.88

Abstract
A honeypot is a decoy server setup to attract crackers towards it. The purpose of a honeypot is to trap the crackers and learn cracking techniques from them. The rise in intrusions into confidential files over the Internet provides great motivation to explore honeypots in depth. This paper discusses and compares various models of honeypots and the difference between a honeypot and a honeynet. It also compares snort-based honeypots such as Mantrap with the user-mode Linux honeypot. We will provide and analyze some results obtained from some successful cases of the honeypot. The results reported here relate to denial-of-service attacks that originate from a TCP source. Lessons derived from successfully deploying the honeypot can serve as pointers to providing a solution that helps thwart intrusions over the Internet.
Keywords: Honeypots, honeynets, denial-of-service attack, Mantrap, snort., user-mode-Linux,


99

A Conceptual Framework for Software Certification. Jamaiah H.Yahaya, Fauziah Baharom, Aziz Deraman, A. Razak Hamdan.

 

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A Conceptual Framework for Software Certification. Jamaiah H.Yahaya, Fauziah Baharom, Aziz Deraman, A. Razak Hamdan. (vol. 3 no.2, 2005) p.99

Abstract
The establishment of the Multimedia Super Corridor (MSC) in 1996 marked the beginning of explosive growth for software and ICT businesses in Malaysia. However, the attention given to ensuring quality in software design and development has not been commensurate with the industry’s actual or potential for growth. Several IT and software companies failed to ensure the quality of their products and the users were compelled to cope with resultant uncertainties in implementation and service. Two studies were conducted to investigate current practices followed by Malaysian IT companies with respect to the process of software development and the assessment and evaluation of software quality. Eighty-four organizations were surveyed on several aspects of quality and certification. This paper presents the findings from these surveys. On the basis of our findings, we propose a conceptual framework for the software certification process in terms of quality assurance practices for both products and processes. The proposed framework is designed for application by an independent certification body or any institution appointed for the purpose.
Key words: Software Certification, Software Product, Software Development Process, Conceptual Framework.


 


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