Journal of Management & Science

Volume 2 No. 2 December 2004 - contents

Research articles:



Jawi Word Processing Packages Developed in Malaysia: A Comparative Study, Md Gapar Md Johar and Sim Liew Fong



Jawi Word Processing Packages Developed in Malaysia: A Comparative Study. Md Gapar Md Johar, Sim Liew Fong. (vol.2 no.2, 2004) p.1

Jawi is the traditional script that was used for Malay before the wring system was Romanized by European colonizers, and has fallen into disuse since. New word processing packages (WPPs) were developed for Jawi recently to revive the use of Jawi as a living orthography. The development these packages is sponsored by agencies like JAKIM, SIRIM, DBP, PENJAWIM, etc. There are competing packages, e.g., Jawi Pro Ofis, Jawi Writer, Comil Jawi Editor, and Universal Word, in the market. In this paper we examine these WPPs so as to understand their features, characteristics, and advantages and disadvantages from a comparative perspective.


Analysis of Run-Time for Computational Geometry Applications, Akram Mohammed Zeki



Analysis of Run-Time for Computational Geometry Applications. Akram Mohammed Zeki. (vol.2 no.2, 2004) p.5

Over a thousand different programming languages have been designed, several are in current use, and new languages continue to emerge (Wilson & Clark, 2001). Therefore, it is essential to be highly selective before deciding on a language to be used for specialist applications like Graphics and Computational Geometry. The purpose of this study is to compare the run-time of four programming languages, Visual Basic, C++, Visual C++ and Java on three levels, namely: Graphics primitives, Curves & Splines, and Complex Geometric shapes.
Keywords: Programming Languages, Visual Basic, C++, Visual C++, Java, Graphics, Computational Geometry, Graphics Primitives, Comparative Study, Speed, Run-time


Effects of α-Amylase, Protease and Lipase on Haruan (Channa striatus) Mucus Extracts Antinociceptive Activity, Zakaria, Z.A. , Sulaiman, M.R, Somchit, M.N. and Mat Jais, A.M



Effects of α-Amylase, Protease and Lipase on Haruan (Channa Striatus) Mucus Extracts Antinociceptive Activity. Zakaria Z.A., Sulaiman M.R., Somchit, M.N. and Mat Jais, A.M. (vol. 2 no.2, 2004) p.9

Haruan (Channa striatus) extracts have a concentration-dependent antinociceptive property, and can enhance the activity of morphine antinociception. The present study aims to establish the basic chemical properties of the bioactive compound responsible for the antinociceptve activity of haruan mucus extract. The extract, at concentrations of 50 and 100%, was pre-treated with α-amylase and lipase with a concentration of 10%, and protease at the concentration of 0.1%. All pre-treatment procedures were carried out at 40o C for 10 minutes. The antinociceptve efficacies of the respective extracts were measured by the acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction test in mice. The extracts pre-treated with α-amylase or protease were found to produce a more significant (P<0.001) concentration-dependent inhibition of abdominal constrictions than treatment with distilled water (negative control). However, the activity was insignificant (P<0.05) when compared to the extracts untreated with the respective enzyme (positive control). Interestingly, pre-treatment of the mucus extracts with lipase was found to produce a marked reduction in the number of abdominal constrictions (P<0.001) when compared with either the negative or positive control groups. However, the result did not follow the concentration-dependent pattern, as the lowest concentration of mucus extract (50%) was found to produce the lowest, but still insignificant, number of abdominal constrictions. In addition, there were significant differences in the effects of lipase on the antinociceptive property of extracts at 50% concentration when compared with that of α-amylase and protease. The failure of α-amylase and protease to affect antinociception seems to suggest that the bioactive compound is neither a simple carbohydrate nor a protein. Meanwhile, the ability of lipase to enhance the extract’s activity, especially at 50% concentration level, leads to suggestions that the lipid may act as a carrier of the bioactive compound or the bioactive compound itself is a lipid-based compound. Finally, we suggest that the bioactive compound is a short-chain macromolecule which is resistant to the effect of the three enzymes. However, further studies need to be carried out to confirm this finding and rule out the effect of the real chemical properties of the bioactive compound.


Case Slicing Technique and Decision Tree Classification Algorithms: A Comparative Study, Omar A. A. Shiba and Md. Nasir Sulaiman



Case Slicing Technique and Decision Tree Classification Algorithms: A Comparative Study. Omar A. A. Shiba, Md. Nasir Sulaiman. (vol.2 no.2, 2004) p.16

Classification of unseen objects is an important task in data mining. There are many classification approaches like Induction of Decision Tree (ID3) and Base Learning (C4.5) Algorithms. The approaches are tested and evaluated by comparing the classifications they arrive at with expected classifications. Several such techniques may be compared by experimentally evaluating their performance on the same datasets. The goal of this paper is to compare Case Slicing Technique (CST) with some selected decision tree classification algorithms. All algorithms are compared using three different datasets. Each of the algorithms was evaluated by using k-cross validation technique.
Keywords: Slicing technique, classification, ID3, C4.5, CST


Factors Influencing Employee Loyalty: An Empirical Investigation at an Educational Institution, Manjit Singh Sandhu and Bokkasam Sasidhar



Factors Influencing Employee Loyalty: An Empirical Investigation at an Educational Institution. Manjit Singh Sandhu and Bokkasam Sasidhar. (vol. 2 no.2, 2004) p.22

This paper examines factors influencing employee loyalty. A survey was conducted to obtain data from the staff of a higher educational institution. The dependent variable in this study was employee loyalty, while the independent variables were remuneration, job satisfaction, work environment, length of service, gender, and age. Factor analysis, reliability analysis, multiple regression analysis, correlation analysis, chi-square test for independence and analysis of variances were employed to analyse the data. Job satisfaction was found to be the most important determinant of employee loyalty, followed by remuneration. Age, gender, and length of service were not found to be significant determinants of employee loyalty. However, significant differences were found between the means of different groups for length of service in regard to their perception of employee loyalty.


A Study of the Evaluation and Assessment of Managerial Competencies, P. Arun Prasad and T. J. Kamalanabhan



A Study of the Evaluation and Assessment of Managerial Competencies. P. Arun Prasad, T. J. Kamalanabhan. (vol.2 no.2, 2004) p.31

This report presents a study of the evaluation and analysis of managerial competencies in a public sector company. Seven competencies identified as critical to managerial success on the basis of relevant literature and the organizations’ expectations were specifically identified for the study. These competencies were clearly centered on the managerial competencies as defined by Mintzerberg (1980), and Klemp and McClelland (1986). The study shows that the executives of the company concerned are highly competent in their managerial performance. Their competency in ‘developing others’ had a higher mean value than other competencies. ‘Directiveness’ as a competency falls short, and needs to be improved. The study concludes that the executives are highly focused. They are capable of fitting into re-engineering processes.


Role Clarity of Employees in Indian Banks : A Comparative Study of Public and Private Sector Banks, Naval Bajpai



Role Clarity of Employees in Indian Banks: A Comparative Study of Public and Private Sector Banks. Naval Bajpai. (vol.2 no2, 2004) p.37

The present study has been designed to examine the role clarity of employees in two public-sector and two-private-sector banks. From each organisation 25 subjects were selected randomly as samples. A questionnaire developed by Sinha (1990) was used for ascertaining the degree of role clarity. Data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA. The F ratio was found to be significant, which indicates that the means of the four organizations under study differed significantly among themselves. The levels of role clarity in private 1, private 2, public 1, and public 2 were found to be 23.80, 23.88, 28.24, and 30.64 respectively. These differences can be attributed to differences in recruitment and training, the highly competitive environment in private-sector banks, and difference in experience and stability perceptions of employees in public and private-sector banks.


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