Journal of Management & Science

Volume 2 No. 1 June 2004 - contents

Research articles:



Managing Globalization through the Theory of Hegemonic Stability: Understanding the Definition, Mohd Zainul Fithri Othman, Mohd Shukri Ab Yajid



Managing Globalization through the Theory of Hegemonic Stability: Understanding the Definition. Mohd Zainul Fithri Othman, Mohd Shukri Ab Yajid. (vol 2 no1, 2004) p.1

We believe that a critique of a theory postulated and projected as an effective remedy for ills affecting international political and economic relations should be based on a clear comprehension of its philosophical underpinnings and its practical manifestation through history. This paper provides an exposition of the Theory of Hegemonic Stability (THS), traces its fortunes through both the history of intellectual ideas on inter-state relations, and the history of the consequences of the actions of powerful hegemonies like UK and USA. Despite its negative associations, its adherents have sought to justify hegemony on the ground that it provides stability and order, which they promote as irrefragably rational public goods that benefit the whole humanity. The realist and the liberal advocates of the theory of hegemony differ in their perception of the ultimate beneficiary of hegemony, but they agree on the inherent desirability of hegemony as a stabilizing force in an essentially fissiparous world. We observe that a superpower like the US, which has historically exercised hegemony, has of late been experiencing economic vulnerabilities in the form of declining domestic labour productivity and share in gross world produce. Yet the international institutions it fostered in its heydays continue to help it maintain its hegemonic status in today’s world.
Keywords: Theory of Hegemony; stability and order; public good; rational products; exchange relations; international monetary and political order


Non-Opioid Antinocipceptive Activity of Fresh Haruan (Channa Striatus) Fillet Extract, Z.A Zakaria, M.R Sulaiman, M.N Somchit, A.M Mat Jais, D.Israf



Non-Opioid Antinociceptive Activity of Fresh Haruan (Channa Striatus) Fillet Extract. Z.A. Zakaria, M.R. Sulaiman, M.N. Somchit, A.M. Mat Jais and D. Israf. (vol 2 no 1, 2004) p.6

This study was aimed at evaluating the antinociceptive activity of the aqueous portion of fresh haruan (Channa striatus) fillet (APH) and determining the involvement of opioid receptor in this activity, using acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction test. The APH was prepared in three concentrations (25, 50 and 100%). Experimental mice were injected with distilled water (DH2O) or naloxone (0.3, 1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg), subcutaneously (SC), and 10 min later, with DH2O or APH. Thirty minutes later, 0.6% acetic acid was administered intraperitoneally (IP) to induce abdominal constriction. The APH was found to cause significant (P<0.001) concentration-dependent antinociceptive activity when compared to the control group. At 25% concentration, the activity of APH was found to be insignificant in relation to the aspirin-treated group, indicating that its antinociceptive effects are the same as those of aspirin. Pre-treatment with naloxone was not found to cause any significant change in the number of abdominal constrictions. Thus, APH produces antinociceptive activity similar to that of mucus extract (Dambisya et al., 1999), which shows no involvement of opioid receptor.
Keywords: Haruan (Channa striatus), antinociceptive, opioid receptor, naloxone, abdominal constriction test


Discretionary Accruals, Non-discretionary Earnings and the Roles of Board of Directors and Audit Committees in Malaysia, Shamsul Nahar Abdullah



Discretionary Accruals, Non-discretionary Earnings and the Roles of Boards of Directors and Audit Committees in Malaysia. Shamsul Nahar Abdullah. (vol 2 no 1, 2004) p.12

This study investigates the roles of the board of directors, the audit committees and the presence of directors with substantial interests on the board in the presence of incentives to utilize the discretionary accruals to inflate the non-discretionary earnings (i.e. unmanaged earnings). It is argued that the presence of such incentives should heighten the propensity of managing accruals by the management in order to achieve the earnings target and this study therefore predicts that the extent of the board independence and audit committee independence should effectively constrain this tendency. Using data from the KLSE Main Board listed companies for the financial year 2000, the findings showed that the board independence and the audit committee’s independence did not effectively constrain the accrual management levels. The study also did not find evidence of the significant roles of the presence of directors with substantial interests on the board, on the levels of discretional accrual management. However, the study found that when the non-discretionary earnings were below zero, the tendency to manage accruals upwards was higher. This evidence supports the contention of using discretionary accruals to meet the earnings targets.
Keywords: discretionary accruals, non-discretionary earnings, board independence, audit committee, Malaysia.


Resource-Based Cumulative Competency for Manufacturing: A proposed Model, Mohd Shukri Abdullah



Resource-Based Cumulative Competency for Manufacturing:a Proposed Model. Muhamad Shukri Abdullah. (vol. 2 no.1, 2004) p.34

Competency-based performance has long been an area of focus of Human resources Development in business as well as educational institutions. In manufacturing, all while academic discussion has been centered on how financial performance measures has been lagging behind by not portraying the true image of how organization could move forward. This has suggested the role of non-financial performance measures as being the drive of good financial results and on-going successful companies. As such, competitive advantages / competitive priorities have now been the underlying strategies for organizational survival.

However much debate has been more about performance indicator, performance measure and performance measurement system. This has made the competency embedded in those discussions. Holistic and rather complex approaches have been introduced and most companies especially the small and medium enterprise may find it hard to understand, what more to implement. This research is proposing to make these competencies as strategies while considering the moderating effects of organizational resources. Through survey questions and case studies, the ultimate model will enable companies to identify their cumulative competency. Meanwhile the cumulative model will also help them to prioritize their competency in accordance with their resources capabilities.


Simulation Analysis of Performance Evaluation of Manufacturing System, Mohd Kamal Mohd Nawawi, Razman Tahar



Simulation Analysis of Performance Evaluation of Manufacturing System. Mohd Kamal Mohd Nawawi, Razman Mat Tahar. (vol.2 no.1, 2004) p.44

Simulation is an analytical tool attractive to managers and engineers seeking to design, understand, and improve any business process. Simulation permits us to study and improve process planning and design by means of a model without having to build, disturb, or disable the actual process. Manufacturing is one of the largest areas of application of simulation. This paper discusses how simulation is used to improve the performance of a Malaysian plant that manufactures fixed trailing-edge panels of aircraft. This study employs simulation to model the existing system first, and then to simulate the design and operational implications of the plant’s proposed changes in production. The model covers the operations at the Primary Manufacturing Area (PMA) and Secondary Manufacturing Area (SMA) of the plant with their resources and flow of operations. The model, built in a modular form, was integrated and subjected to experimentation under different scenarios. The results of the experiments are interpreted to arrive at the implications of an increase in production by 20% for current manufacturing resources.
Keywords: Simulation, Modelling, Manufacturing, Planning.


Strategic Information System Planning Practices in Malaysia, Sim Liew Fong, Md Gapar Md Johar



Strategic Information System Planning Practices in Malaysia. Sim Liew Fong, Md Gapar Md Johar. (vol.2 no1, 2004) p.54

With rapid developments in Information Technology, Malaysia business organizations are racing towards harnessing IT’s potential in gaining a competitive edge. This survey is conducted within Klang Valley and it focuses on seven sectors, mainly the public services sector, manufacturing sector, IT services sector, education sector, trading sector, banking and insurance sector; and telecommunication sector. The findings were analyzed based on individual, individual sectors and the overall sectors. Results show that Malaysia has organizations implementing SISP to stay afloat in current competitive economics.
Keywords: strategic information systems planning, SIS Planning, SIS implementation, public services, manufacturing, IT services, education, trading, banking and insurance, telecommunication.


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