Journal of Management & Science

Volume 1 No. 2 December 2003 - contents

Research articles:



Halal Requirements for the Food Service Industry, B.A. Asbi, Mohd Shukri Ab Yajid, Amat Taap Manshor, Y.B. Che Man, A.M. Abdul Azis, Mahmud Khan



Halal Requirements for the Food Service Industry. Asbi B.A., Mohd Shukri Ab Yajid, Amat Taap Manshor, Y.B. Che Man, A.M. Abdul Azis, Mahmud Khan. (vol 1 no 2, 2003) p.1

Halal foods are part of an essential diet for Muslims all over the world. For this reason, there is a need to look at the way food is being produced and prepared for consumption for Muslims. The food industry in which food is being manufactured on a commercial scale has already begun to be quite accustomed to the concept of halal foods and the specific requirements that are associated with the way halal foods are produced. This is not so the case with the food service sector which is lagging behind in this aspect. This paper looks at the general requirements that should be seriously looked at by the food service industry when halal foods are being served to consumers. Keywords: Halal food, Food service industry


The Medical Hazards Of The Nuclear Age, Terry G. Baker



The Medical Hazards of the Nuclear Age. Terry G. Baker. (vol I no 2, 2003) p.5

The threats of world terrorism, which includes the use of nuclear weapons including the so-called “dirty bomb” ( a package of radioactive waste which would be spread over potentially large areas by conventional explosives) is causing concern throughout the world. Countermeasures, which themselves may exacerbate the situation, are being implemented by some countries, especially those measures which will at least help to protect their populations from attack. The purpose of this paper was to consider the effects of ionising radiations on a population exposed to nuclear fallout. By way of example it will concentrate on the world’s worst nuclear accident, namely the explosion of reactor number 4 in the Chernobyl nuclear power station in the Ukraine.


Parallel Computing in Engineering, Christopher William and Raymond Greenlaw



Parallel Computing in Engineering. Christopher Williams and Raymond Greenlaw. (vol 1 no 2, 2003) p.10

With a rich history and numerous applications, parallel computing has become a very important topic in the field of engineering. We take a look at its history, covering some of the items that are relevant to the current state of parallel programming and parallel machines. We also look at the requirements of programming languages that can be used in conjunction with parallel computer. Then, we look at some of the engineering applications where parallel computing is being utilized to great benefit. We next delve into the theoretical aspects inherent in this field, going over some of the models used in parallel computation, while also describing the complexity classes used. Finally, we cover some statistical physics models and then classify these growth models using the complexity classes introduce.


The Role of peripheral L-Arginine/Nitric Oxide/Cyclic GMP pathway in Haruan (Channa striatus) – induced antinociception, Z.A. Zakaria, M.R. Sulaiman, M.N. Somchit, E.C. Justin, A.M. Mat Jais and D. Israf



The Role of peripheral L-Arginine/Nitric Oxide/Cyclic GMP pathway in Haruan (Channa striatus)–induced antinociception. Zakaria Z.A., Sulaiman M.R., M.N. Somchit, E.C. Justin, A.M. Mat Jais, D. Israf. (vol 1 no2, 2003) p.15

The influence of L-arginine/Nitric Oxide/Cyclic Guanosine 3’:5’-Monophosphate pathway in mediating the antinociceptive activity of aqueous portion of fresh haruan (Channa striatus) fillet (APH) collected after 24 h extraction with chloroform:methanol (2:1) was studied and compared with that of aspirin (10 mg/kg) using the acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction test in mice. APH (10, 25 and 100% concentration) exhibited a concentration-dependent antinociceptive activity with the 25% concentration APH producing almost 50% inhibition of the abdominal constrictions. The dose, however, was insignificant compared to the aspirin-induced antinociception. Given alone (20 mg/kg), L-arginine produced significant nociceptive effect (P<0.05); D-arginine and NG–Nitro–L–Arginine methyl esters (L-NAME) did not produce any effect; and methylene blue (MB) produced significant antinociceptive effect (P<0.001) when compared to distilled water (DH2O)-treated group. At the three respective concentrations, pretreatment of L-arginine was found to significantly reverse the APH (P<0.05 to P<0.001) and aspirin (P<0.001) antinociceptive activity; pretreatment of D-arginine did not produce any significant change in the APH and aspirin activity, whereas pretreatment of L-NAME only caused significant increased in the antinociceptive activity of 10 (P<0.001) and 25% (P<0.003) concentration APH, but not of the 100% concentration APH and aspirin; and pretreatment of MB was found to significantly enhance the antinociceptive activity of the APH, at three respective concentrations (P<0.001; P<0.001; P<0.002), and aspirin (P<0.001). Furthermore, co-treatment with L-NAME was found to insignificantly reduce the nociception induced by L-arginine alone; insignificantly increase the number of abdominal constrictions of group treated with L-arginine and aspirin while significantly enhanced the L-arginine-induced reduction of 25% concentration APH antinociception (P<0.027). In addition, MB was found to significantly reversed the nociceptive effect of L-arginine in DH2O- (P<0.001), aspirin- (P<0.001) and 25% concentration APH (P<0.045)-treated groups, respectively. Based on the finding, NO is suggested to play important role in mediating haruan antinociception, a role which is limited by the present of higher concentration of haruan. Aspirin antinociception is also believed to be influence by increase but not decrease NO production. In addition, blocking of cGMP system is thought to influence the haruan and aspirin antinociception by increasing the activity.
Keywords: Haruan (Channa striatus), antinociceptive, L-arginine/NO/cGMP pathway, aspirin, abdominal constriction test


Communicative Strategies Used By Bilingual College Students, Norizah Mohd Said



Communicative Strategies Used by Bilingual College Students. Norizah Mohd Said. (vol 1 no 2) p.26

Communication has been understood as relaying messages through both verbal and non-verbal communication. In the context of second language users of English, many studies have been done in order to identify the reasons why second language users of English code-switch and code-mix. One of the reasons identified was to ensure the message is clearly understood. Nonetheless, could the proficient Malaysian speakers of English also code switch and use communicative strategies in a creative manner? This was the interest of the study, which is to understand more about the adoption of such communicative strategies used by a group of Malaysian private college students who had mastered a certain level of proficiency in the English language. Even though the focus of the study was on the use of verbal communication, the use of non-verbal communication or gestures was also observed. It was also important to emphasize that code-switching was viewed, not in isolation, but as one of the communicative strategies adopted. 26 students were selected in order to achieve this study’s objectives. These students were both Advanced Technology and Management Centre (PTPL) college’s matriculation and private programs’ students and they had undergone speaking or communicative skills classes. For the analysis of data, the discussions sessions were tape-recorded, transcribed and compared against the model adapted from the study done by Jamaliah (2000). From the results, nine additional sub-strategies were identified and discussions in the study were done based on the transcribed discussions and interviews with the students involved.


Digital Image Processing: Biometric Systems and Fingerprint Application, Mohamad Kharulli Othman and Ghazali Sulong



Digital Image Processing: Biometric Systems and Fingerprint Application. Mohamad Kharulli Othman, Ghazali Sulong. (vol 1 no 2, 2003) p.33

This paper discussed an introduction to digital image processing fundamentals, digital image in biometric environments and implementations of digital image processing in fingerprint application development. The discussion involved basic operations such as image enhancements, noise removal in spatial domains. Also discover the biometric system and their relationship with image processing technology. Lastly, this paper also includes discussion of fingerprint identification, the existing method and uses in fingerprint identification research. This paper also remarks the usefulness of combining biometric and image processing techniques.
Keyword: Digital image processing; biometric; fingerprint, machine vision; computer vision


Generating Isopotential Contours of L-arginine binding to the C-terminal domain of Escherichia coli arginine repressor protein (ArgRc). Rowyna Kueh, Noorsaadah Abdul Rahman, Amir Feisal Merican.



Generating Isopotential Contours of L-arginine binding to the C-terminal domain of Escherichia coli arginine repressor protein (ArgRc). Rowyna Kueh, Noorsaadah Abdul Rahman, Amir Feisal Merican. (vol 1 no 2, 2003) p.39

Electrostatic calculations were performed to elucidate the effect of long-range electrostatic interactions of L-arginine with the C-terminal domain of the Escherichia coli arginine repressor protein (ArgRc). Electrostatic potential contours were generated which helped to visualize distinct regions that are likely to be more favourable for L-arginine interaction with ArgRc. This study revealed that the binding of L-arginine molecules to ArgRc resulted in changes to the electrostatic properties of ArgRc and caused reduction of the negative potentials surrounding the binding sites.


Knowledge To Support Performance And Training, Thilagarani Selvaraj



Knowledge to Support Performance and Training. Thilagarani Selvaraj. (vol 1 no 2, 2003) p.43

The concept of knowledge has been operationalized in different ways. Stewart (1994p.70) explains two forms of knowledge in organizational contexts in the following. The first rules based, where following procedures yields the correct answer to specific problem. Rules can often automated, whether by a simple spell checker or by fancy expert system software that produces, say, the best circuitry design for a signal processor ……… . Most knowledge is less structured: the answer varies with the context; it takes the form of wisdom, experience, and stories, not rules. Knowledge has been considered as a basis for almost all value (McHugh et al.1995). The issue of managing knowledge has attracted much attention of practitioners and scholars in organizations. These will develop a knowledge-based worker in an organization. In this context, K- worker is can be defined as new breeds of versatile, autonomous and highly skilled worker who are people who genuinely add value to information to create new knowledge or people who create information and knowledge and integrate it into business. The purpose of this paper is to convert knowledge into improve performance; and training strategies to develop learning capability in the context of managing knowledge. These will develop a knowledge-based worker in an organization.


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