Journal of Management & Science

Volume 1 No. 1 June 2003 - contents

Research articles:



Challenges Of The New Millennium, Mohd Shukri Ab. Yajid



Review on the Future Challenges of Malaysian Higher Education
. Mohd Shukri Ab. Yajid. (vol 1 no 1, 2004)

Malaysia is experiencing a rapid development and growth in the higher education industry and to meet these challenges in the next decade, there are a number of important issues that need to be addressed. This paper summarizes those problems which include the threat and opportunities arising from external factors such as globalization, world economic growth, and rapid technological changes as well as from internal factors such as national policies and objectives, corporatization of public universities, and the government’s role in strengthening the private education sector so that it becomes an important net revenue earner for the country.


New Direction in HCI Education, Ong Thian Song



New Direction in HCI Education
. Ong Thian Song. (vol 1 no. 1, 2003)p.4

Education in HCI (Human Computer Interaction) has existed as an area of study in universities for many years. It is a sub area of the field of Computer Sciences (CS). Most local universities in Malaysia offer HCI as an individual course rather than a majoring discipline comprising series of interrelated subjects. This was quite a deviant from its primary role as a multidisciplinary field drawing on knowledge from the multiple areas such as user interface, business, engineering and even physiology. An important concern of HCI is the design of user interface by integrating several aspects of the above-mentioned areas to develop and implement interactive systems for end user. As the discipline of HCI is actively progressing, relevant changes in the CS curriculum is necessary to produce HCI specialists who are good system designers, builders and implementers. To address the problems of HCI, local universities need to perceive HCI as a set of knowledge and skills prepare student for jobs in the information age. Thus, HCI specialization within CS curriculum is imperative to achieve the above-mentioned goals. Keywords: HCI education


Differentiated Service: Architecture Overview Study, Mohamed Awad Elshaikh, Mohamed Othman



Differentiated Service: Architecture Overview Study,
Mohamed. Awad Elshaikh, Mohamed Othman. (vol.1 no. 1, 2003) p.7

Traditionally, the Internet has provided only best effort service to every user without any consideration to any requirements such as delay jitter and loss. As the Internet grows and becomes universally available, it becomes very important to deal with real time service delivery to application such as IP telephony, video on demand and interactive multimedia. Thus an interest has developed in having the Internet to provide some degree of Quality of Service (QoS). To provide different QoS Commitments, the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) developed many technologies that require resources such as bandwidth and buffers to be explicitly reserved for a given data flow to ensure that the application receives its requested QoS such as MultiProtocol Label Switching (MPLS), Integrated Service (IntServ or IS) and Differentiated Service (DiffServ or DS). This technical report is about DiffServ namely about architecture, services, traffic classifier, profile and conditioner.


The Importance of Internal Audit, Wong Oi Ching



The Importance of Internal Audit
. Wong Oi Ching. (Vol. 1 no 1, 2003) p. 12

In Malaysia, only public listed companies are required to have internal audit conducted in the company due to Kuala Lumpur Stock Exchange Listing Requirements. The external auditor only provides services on merely external audit that is compliance with the accounting standard and statutory requirement. Internal audit services are only provided if the clients request for them and specify how wide is the scopes of audit requested. The audit firm will impose charges on extra internal audit services provided based on the extent of the internal audit. Most of the s mall and medium size firm do not realize the importance of internal audit and find that they can handle that themselves. They find that only big size firm with branches need the internal audit services. For big firms, normally they have their own internal audit department. Those firms that seek for the internal audit services are due to the Kuala Lumpur Stock Exchange Listing Requirements or the management find that they are not good enough that they need some outside internal audit services.


The Speed of Share Price Adjustment to Corporate Announcements. A KLSE Experience, Jothee Sinnakkannu



The Speed of Share Price Adjustment to Corporate Announcements. A KLSE Experience
. Jothee Sinnakkannu. (vol 1 no 1, 2003) p.14

Speed of price adjustment is another dimension of market efficiency besides the direction and magnitude. However, the speed dimension has always been receiving less attention all this while even in the developed markets. A number of estimators have been developed in previous to measure speed of price adjustment, studies mainly by Amihud and Mendelson [1989], Damodaran [1993], Brisley and Theobald [1996], Theobald and Yallup [1998]), Ariff and Chan (1999). However, each of these estimators suffers from deficiencies such as non-synchronous trading, partial adjustment only and limiting point of time to fully adjust. This study, using the increased final dividend announcements of companies listed in Kuala Lumpur Stock Exchange (KLSE) and the latest robust speed of price adjustment coefficient in terms of ratios of autocovariances, which outperform extant estimators. Findings reveals that there is a price overreaction to new information which last 8 days from the day of announcement and it takes 10 days to fully adjust to the new information.


Softening-associated Cell Wall Modifications by a-galactosidase 2 from Carica Papaya, C.P. Soh, Z.M. Ali and H.Lazan



Softening-associated cell wall modifications by α-galactosidase 2 from Carica papaya. C.P. Soh, Z.M. Ali & H. Lazan. (vol 1 no 1, 2003) p.22

The capability of α-galactosidase 2 in modifying cell wall material was determined. Sequential fractionation of isolated cell wall material after incubation with purified α-galactosidase 2 was performed before the wall fractions were analysed. The enzyme was found capable of modifying cell wall materials that were isolated from unripe mesocarp tissue of papaya fruit. The enzyme preparation was free from activities of other cell wall hydrolases such as polygalacturonase, pectin methylesterase and other glycosidases. α-Galactosidase 2 seemed to have higher affinities towards pectic materials, especially the uronic acid-enriched polymers, than hemicellulosic substances. The results also indicated that the enzyme could act as a transglycosylase as well as hydrolase in the event of cell wall modification, with a more prominent role in the earlier ripening stages of papaya fruits. Keywords: α-Galactosidase; softening; papaya; cell wall modification


Chemical Constituents of Essential Oils of The Leaves and Flowers of Eupatorium Odoratum. L., S. Nor Syarmila, K. C. Wong and T.W. Sam



Chemical Constituents of Essential Oils of the Leaves and Flowers of Eupatorium Odoratum
L. S. Nor Syarmila, K.C. Wong, T.W. Sam. (vol 1 no 1, 2003) p.25

Eupatorium odoratum L. is a weed easily found in Malaysia and other tropical areas around the world. Usually the plant is used traditionally to stop bleeding from minor cuts and wounds and to be applied to burns. The objective of this research is to gather data of the chemical constituents of the plant’s leaves and flowers essential oils. The n-pentane extracts of the plant were also tested for antibacterial and antifungal. The major chemical constituents of the leaves essential oil are a-pinene, pregeijerene, geijerene and germacrene D. Whereas the essential oil of the flowers contains germacrene D, pregeijerene, geijerene, a-pinene and ß-pinene as the major chemical constituents. In the antibacterial test, the essential oil of the leaves inhibits the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Keywords: Eupatorium odoratum L.; essential oil; antibacterial test


Effects of Learning Environment Towards Achievement and Attitude in Mathematics Among Standard Six Students, Sayeeda Kamaruddin



Effects of Learning Environment Towards Achievement and Attitude In Mathematics Among Standard Six Students.
Sayeeda Kamaruddin. (vol. 1 no 1, 2003)

The main purpose of this research is to investigate the relationship between perceived classroom learning environment and two students outcomes, which are achievement and attitudes in Mathematics. Other than that, relation between attitudes and achievement in Mathematics also been considered. A sample that has been used for the study consist of 377 students from two rural and urban schools in Bayan Lepas, Penang. My Class Inventory (MCI) has been used to measure classroom climate scale, whereas Liking Mathematic Scale (LMS) and Mathematic Exercise (ME) were used to assess student’s attitudes and achievement in Mathematics. The results showed that among the three scales of classroom learning environment been used (Satisfaction, Friction and Cohesion), Satisfaction do relate with both attitudes and achievement of the students. As a whole, positive classroom learning environment tend to influence student’s attitudes and achievement. Besides, more positive attitudes towards Mathematics is needed to improve one’s achievement in Mathematics. Lastly, from the result obtained in this research, it is proposed to the authorities concerned to create a positive classroom atmosphere to enhance both positive attitudes and better achievement.


A Study On The Usage Of Internet Among Higher Educational Institutions In Malaysia: Case Study In Universiti Islam Antarabangsa Malaysia And Universiti Malaya, Adam Suhaimi and Yanti Idaya Aspura Md. Khalid



A Study on the Usage of Internet among Higher Educational Institutions in Malaysia: Case Study in Universiti Islam Antarabangsa Malaysia and Universiti Malaya
.Adam Suhaimi, Yanti Idaya Aspura Md. Khalid. (vol. 1 no 1, 2003) p.31

Recently, information retrieval and distribution have emerged as key determinants of knowledge effectiveness and competitiveness among higher educational students. Internet as a tool of information retrieval is the world’s largest collection of decentralized computer networks (well over 50,000 networks) connecting more than 2 million computers using the high-speed TCP/IP telecommunications protocols. Through the Internet, at least 30 million people in over 200 countries send and receive E-mail, engage in thousands of discussion groups, conduct research and do projects, and utilize a wide array of public and private information services. The paper reviews the use of Internet among higher educational students in Malaysia by looking at two local universities: Universiti Islam Antarabangsa Malaysia and Universiti Malaya. This research is based on the questionnaires given to students from the universities and provides the detailed comparisons in term of the usage of Internet application and the analysis data of those samples. The effects of Internet towards students from these universities have been analyzed through statistical review and data analysis. This research is done in order to look at how important is Internet towards students and how they benefit the usage of Internet in their curriculum. Keywords: Internet, usage, higher educational institution, Malaysia



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